Benzodiazepines

Agents

  • Alprazolam (Xanax) (see Alprazolam, [[Alprazolam]])
    • Half-Life: 6-26 hrs
  • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) (see Chlordiazepoxide, [[Chlordiazepoxide]])
    • Half-Life: xxx
  • Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril, Clonotril) (see Clonazepam, [[Clonazepam]])
    • Half-Life: xxx
  • Diazepam (Valium) (see Diazepam, [[Diazepam]])
    • Half-Life: 20-100 hrs
  • Lorazepam (Ativan) (see Lorazepam, [[Lorazepam]])
    • Half-Life: 10-20 hrs
  • Midazolam (Versed) (see Midazolam, [[Midazolam]])
    • Half-Life: ? hrs
  • Temazepam (Restoril, Normison) (see Temazepam, [[Temazepam]])
    • Half-Life: ? hrs
  • Triazolam (Halcion) (see Triazolam, [[Triazolam]])
    • Half-Life: ? hrs

Indications

  • Anxiety (see Anxiety, [[Anxiety]])
  • Methamphetamine Withdrawal (see Methamphetamine, [[Methamphetamine]]): benzodiazepines have been used
  • Moderate Sedation

Pharmacology

  • xxx

Adverse Effects

Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects


Benzodiazepine Intoxication

  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical
  • Treatment
    • Flumazenil (Romazicon) (see Flumazenil, [[Flumazenil]])
      • IV: 0.2 mg slow IVP, then 0.3 mg in 30 sec, then 0.5 mg (max: 3 mg)
      • Action: benzodiazepine receptor antagonist
      • Indications: benzodiazepine overdose
      • SE: benzodiazepine withdrawal/seizures
      • Contraindications: avoid use in multi-drug overdose with TCA or other stimulants (may precipitate seizures)
      • Half-life: may need to re-dose q20 min (to max of 3 mg/hr)

Benzodiazepine Withdrawal

Clinical

Neurologic Manifestations

Other Manifestations

  • xxxx

Treatment

  • xxxx

References

  • xxx