Akathisia

Etiology

Anti-Psychotics

  • Aripiprazole (Abilify) (see Aripiprazole, [[Aripiprazole]])
  • Haloperidol (Haldol) (see Haloperidol, [[Haloperidol]])
  • Risperidone (Risperdal) (see Risperidone, [[Risperidone]])

Antidepressants

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI’s) (see Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, [[Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors]])
    • Citalopram (Celexa) (see Citalopram, [[Citalopram]])
    • Escitalopram (Lexapro) (see Escitalopram, [[Escitalopram]])
    • Fluoxetine (Prozac) (see Fluoxetine, [[Fluoxetine]])
    • Fluvoxamine (Luvox) (see Fluvoxamine, [[Fluvoxamine]])
    • Paroxetine (Paxil) (see Paroxetine, [[Paroxetine]])
    • Sertraline (Zoloft) (see Sertraline, [[Sertraline]])
  • Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRI’s) (see Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors, [[Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors]])
    • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) (see Desvenlafaxine, [[Desvenlafaxine]])
    • Duloxetine (Cymbalta, Yentreve) (see Duloxetine, [[Duloxetine]])
    • Levomilnacipran (Fetzima)
    • Milnacipran (Dalcipran, Ixel, Savella)
    • Sibutramine (Meridia, Reductil)
    • Venlafaxine (Effexor) (see Venlafaxine, [[Venlafaxine]])
  • Trazodone (see Trazodone, [[Trazodone]])
  • Tricyclic Antideressants (see Tricyclic Antidepressants, [[Tricyclic Antidepressants]])
    • Amitriptyline (Tryptomer, Elavil) (see Amitriptyline, [[Amitriptyline]])
    • Clomipramine (Anafranil) (see Clomipramine, [[Clomipramine]])
    • Desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane) (see Desipramine, [[Desipramine]])
    • Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan) (see Doxepin, [[Doxepin]])
    • Imipramine (Tofranil, Janimine, Praminil) (see Imipramine, [[Imipramine]])
    • Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, Norpress) (see Nortriptyline, [[Nortriptyline]])
    • Protriptyline (Vivactil) (see Protriptyline, [[Protriptyline]])
    • Trimipramine (Surmontil) (see Trimipramine, [[Trimipramine]])

Anti-Emetics

Stimulants

  • Amphetamine Intoxication (see Amphetamine, [[Amphetamine]])
  • Caffeine (see Caffeine, [[Caffeine]])
  • Methamphetamine Intoxication (see Methamphetamine, [[Methamphetamine]])
  • Tea
  • Tobacco (see Tobacco, [[Tobacco]])

Withdrawal

  • Barbiturate Withdrawal (see Barbiturates, [[Barbiturates]])
  • Benzodiazepine Withdrawal (see Benzodiazepines, [[Benzodiazepines]])
  • Cocaine Withdrawal (see Cocaine, [[Cocaine]])
  • Opiate Withdrawal (see Opiates, [[Opiates]])

Toxin/Intoxication

  • Ethanol (see Ethanol, [[Ethanol]])
  • Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) (see Gamma Hydroxybutyrate, [[Gamma Hydroxybutyrate]])
  • Scorpion Sting (see Scorpion Sting, [[Scorpion Sting]]): may manifest tongue and somatic fasciculations
    • Centuroides Exilicauda (Sculpuratus)
    • Centuroides Suffusus
  • Serotonin Syndrome (see Serotonin Syndrome, [[Serotonin Syndrome]])

Other


Clinical Manifestations

Neurologic Manifestations

  • Discomfort
  • Motor Restlessness/Hyperkinesis: particularly in the lower extremities
  • Anxiety/Agitation (see Anxiety, [[Anxiety]])
  • Labile Affect

Treatment


References

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