Aplastic Anemia

Etiology

Hereditary

  • Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia
  • Down’s Syndrome
  • Dubowitz Syndrome
  • Dyskeratosis Congenita
  • Familial Aplastic Anemia
  • Fanconi Anemia
  • Preleukemia: monosomy 7, etc
  • Reticular Dysgenesis
  • Seckel Syndrome
  • Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome

Acquired

Drug

  • Acetazolamide (Diamox) (see Acetazolamide, [[Acetazolamide]]): moderate risk of aplastic anemia
  • Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) (see Acetylsalicylic Acid, [[Acetylsalicylic Acid]])
  • Allopurinol (see Allopurinol, [[Allopurinol]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Bismuth (see Bismuth, [[Bismuth]])
  • Captopril (Capoten) (see Captopril, [[Captopril]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Carbamazepine (Tegretol) (see Carbamazepine, [[Carbamazepine]])
  • Carbimazole (Neo-Mercazole): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Chloramphenicol (see Chloramphenicol, [[Chloramphenicol]])
  • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Chloroquine (see Chloroquine, [[Chloroquine]])
  • Chlorothiazide (see Chlorothiazide, [[Chlorothiazide]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Chlorpheniramine
  • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine, Largactil, Megaphen) (see Chlorpromazine, [[Chlorpromazine]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Chemotherapeutic Cytotoxic Drugs: cause bone marrow depression at commonly employed doses
    • Alkylating Agents
      • Busulfan (see Busulfan, [[Busulfan]])
      • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (see Cyclophosphamide, [[Cyclophosphamide]])
      • Melphalan (see Melphalan, [[Melphalan]])
      • Nitrogen Mustard
    • Antimetabolites
    • Antimitotics
    • Cytotoxic Antibiotics
  • Cimetidine (see Cimetidine, [[Cimetidine]])
  • Colchicine (see Colchicine, [[Colchicine]])
  • Dapsone (see Dapsone, [[Dapsone]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Estrogens: in pregnancy and in high doses in animal studies
  • Felbamate
  • Flucytosine (see Flucytosine, [[Flucytosine]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Furosemide (Lasix) (see Furosemide, [[Furosemide]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Gaunidine: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Gold (see Gold, [[Gold]])
  • Ibuprofen (see Ibuprofen, [[Ibuprofen]])
  • Indomethacin (Indocin) (see Indomethacin, [[Indomethacin]])
  • Lithium (see Lithium, [[Lithium]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Mepacrine
  • Mebendazole: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Meprobamate: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Methicillin (see Methicillin, [[Methicillin]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Methimazole (Tapazole) (see Methimazole, [[Methimazole]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Methlydopa (see Methlydopa, [[Methlydopa]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Methylprylon: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Penicillamine (see Penicillamine, [[Penicillamine]])
  • Phenacemide
  • Phenylbutazone (see Phenylbutazone, [[Phenylbutazone]])
  • Phenytoin (Dilantin) (see Phenytoin, [[Phenytoin]])
  • Piperacetazine: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Potassium Perchlorate: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Prochlorperazine (Compazine, Stemzine, Buccastem, Stemetil, Phenotil) (see Prochlorperazine, [[Prochlorperazine]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Propylthiouracil (PTU) (see Propylthiouracil, [[Propylthiouracil]]): low risk of aplastic anemia
  • Quinacrine
  • Quinidine: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Streptomycin: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim (Bactrim) (see Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim, [[Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Sulfonamides: sulfa antibiotics, methimazole, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetazolamide, methazolamide
  • Sulindac (Clinoril) (see Sulindac)
  • Tetracycline (see Tetracycline, [[Tetracycline]]): unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Thiocyanate: unclear association with aplastic anemia
  • Ticlopidine (Ticlid) (see Ticlopidine, [[Ticlopidine]]): low risk of aplastic anemia

Infection

Toxin

  • Arsenic (see Arsenic, [[Arsenic]])
  • Benzene (see Benzene, [[Benzene]]): frequently produces bone marrow depression
  • Hydrocarbons (see Hydrocarbons, [[Hydrocarbons]]): chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Mercury (see Mercury, [[Mercury]])
  • Organophosphates (see Organophosphates, [[Organophosphates]])

Other


Diagnosis

  • xxx

Clinical

  • xxx

Treatment

  • xxx

References

  • xxx