Panhypopituitarism

Etiology

Hypothalamic Disease

  • Craniopharyngioma: arising from hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamic Metastases
  • Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (see Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident, [[Ischemic Cerebrovascular Accident]])
    • Epidemiology: uncommon etiology of panhypopituitarism
  • Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (see Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis, [[Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis]])
  • Meningitis (see Meningitis, [[Meningitis]]): more commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients (patient’s with HIV or on high-dose corticosteroids)
  • Radiation Therapy (see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]])
  • Sarcoidosis (see Sarcoidosis, [[Sarcoidosis]])
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) (see Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, [[Subarachnoid Hemorrhage]])
    • Epidemiology: uncommon etiology of panhypopituitarism
  • Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (see Traumatic Brain Injury, [[Traumatic Brain Injury]])
    • Epidemiology: usually (but not always) associated with head trauma severe enough to fracture the skull base

Pituitary Disease

  • Empty Sella Syndrome
  • Genetic Pituitary Disease: due to mutations in genes encoding various transcription factors
    • HESX1 Mutation
    • PIT-1 Mutation
    • PROP-1 Mutation
    • TPIT Mutation
  • Hereditary Hemochromatosis (see
  • Hypophysitis
    • Granulomatous Hypophysitis
    • Lymphocytic Hypophysitis
      • Ipilimumab (MDX-101, MDX-010, Yervoy) (see Ipilimumab, [[Ipilimumab]])
    • Plasmacytic (IgG4-Associated) Hypophysitis (see Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease, [[Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease]])
    • Xanthomatous Hypophysitis
  • Pituitary Adenoma (see Pituitary Adenoma, [[Pituitary Adenoma]])
  • Pituitary Apoplexy
  • Pituitary Cyst
  • Pituitary Infarction (Sheehan’s Syndrome)
  • Pituitary Infection/Abscess
  • Pituitary Mass Lesion
    • Pituitary Macroadenoma
  • Pituitary Metastases
    • xxx
  • Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome
  • Pituitary Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy (see Radiation Therapy, [[Radiation Therapy]])

Physiology

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Diagnosis

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Clinical Manifestations

Cardiovascular Manifestations

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Hematologic Manifestations

  • Anemia (see Anemia, [[Anemia]])

Other Manifestations

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Treatment

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References

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