Sodium Azide

Epidemiology

  • 2009: Harvard lab coffee maker was poisoned with sodium azide -> accidental ingestion by lab workers

Exposure

  • Automobile Airbags
    • Used as substrate for the propellant in airbags: via a chemical reaction with high temperature, reaction of sodium azide forms nitrogen gas + sodium salts + particulate matter -> nitrogen gas inflates the air bag
  • Parachutes
  • Preservative: prevents bacterial growth

Physiology

  • Characteristics of Sodium Azide: white colorless, odorless crystalline powder
  • Sodium Azide Inhalation
    • Inhibition of respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase
  • Sodium Azide Ingestion
    • Inhibition of respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase

Clinical

Sodium Azide Inhalation

  • Exacerbation of Asthma (see Asthma, [[Asthma]])
    • Epidemiology: associated with airbag deployment -> inhalation
  • Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome (“Airbag Asthma”) (see Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome, [[Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome]])
    • Epidemiology: associated with airbag deployment -> inhalation
  • Airbag Pneumonitis (see Pneumonia, [[Pneumonia]])
    • Epidemiology: associated with airbag deployment -> inhalation
  • Acute Lung Injury-ARDS (see Acute Lung Injury-ARDS, [[Acute Lung Injury-ARDS]])
    • Epidemiology: associated with airbag deployment -> inhalation

Sodium Azide Ingestion

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References

  • Acute pulmonary response of asthmatics to aerosols and gases generated by airbag deployment. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1994; 150: 408-14
  • Mechanism of induction of asthmatic attacks initiated by the inhalation of particles generated by airbag system deployment. Journal of Trauma, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 521–527, 1995
  • Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome due to sodium azide inhalation,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 469–471, 1996
  • Human health effects of sodium azide exposure: a literature review and analysis. International Journal of Toxicology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 175–186, 2003
  • Airbag asthma: a case report and review of the literature. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 369–372, 2006
  • Airbag pneumonitis: a report and discussion of a new clinical entity. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medical Care, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 470–473, 2007
  • Case Report-Airbag Pneumonitis. Case Reports in Medicine. Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 498569, 2 pages. doi:10.1155/2010/498569