Mosquito Bite

General Information

  • Mosquitoes are Frequently Found Near Standing Water: since mosquitoes require an aquatic environment to maintain their life cycle
  • Most Common Genera of Mosquitoes Which are Responsible for Human Bites
    • Aedes
    • Anopheles
    • Culex

Clinical Manifestations

Allergic Reactions

Local Reactions

  • Erythema
  • Pain
  • Pruritus (see Pruritus, [[Pruritus]])
  • Pruritic Papule (see Papules, [[Papules]]): peaks at 2-3 days (and subsequently resolves over days-weeks)
  • Wheel and Flare Response: usually occurs immediately and peaks at 20 min
  • Significant Local Swelling
    • May Occur in Children
    • May Occur with a Low-Grade Fever and Be Mistaken for Cellulitis
  • Ecchymosis (see Ecchymosis, [[Ecchymosis]]): less common
  • Vesicle/Bullae (see Vesicular-Bullous-Pustular Skin Lesions, [[Vesicular-Bullous-Pustular Skin Lesions]]): less common
  • Necrotic Skin Lesion: may occur in patients with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders

Systemic Reaction

  • Anaphylaxis (see Anaphylaxis, [[Anaphylaxis]]): rarely occurs with mosquito bite (Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol, 2007) [MEDLINE]

Infectious Transmission

General Comments

  • Mosquitoes Do Not Transmit Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): since HIV neither does not survive or replicate well in mosquitoes and the blood from one meal is not injected into the next host

Arbovirus (Arthropod-Borne) Infection (see Arboviruses, [[Arboviruses]])

  • California Encephalitis Virus Serogroup (see California Encephalitis Virus, [[California Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Snowshoe Hare Virus
    • Jamestown Canyon Virus
    • La Crosse Encephalitis Virus
      • Vector
        • Aedes Triseriatus Mosquito (Eastern Tree Hole Mosquito)
  • Chikungunya Virus (see Chikungunya Fever, [[Chikungunya Fever]])
    • Vectors
      • Aedes Aegypti
      • Aedes Albopictus Mosquito (Asian Tiger Mosquito)
  • Dengue Virus (see Dengue Virus, [[Dengue Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Aedes Aegypti Mosquito
      • Aedes Albopictus Mosquito (Asian Tiger Mosquito)
  • Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (see Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, [[Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Culiseta Melanura Mosquito
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (see Japanese Encephalitis Virus, [[Japanese Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • xxxxx Mosquito
  • Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus (see Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus, [[Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Culex Annulirostris Mosquito
  • Ross River Virus (see Ross River Virus, [[Ross River Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • xxxxx Mosquito
  • Spondweni Virus (see Spondweni Virus, [[Spondweni Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • xxxxx Mosquito
  • St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (see St Louis Encephalitis Virus, [[St Louis Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • xxxxx Mosquito
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (see Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus, [[Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Culex Mosquitoes
  • Western Equine Encephalitis Virus (see Western Equine Encephalitis Virus, [[Western Equine Encephalitis Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Culex Mosquitoes
  • West Nile Virus (see West Nile Virus, [[West Nile Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • xxxxx Mosquito
  • Yellow Fever Virus (see Yellow Fever Virus, [[Yellow Fever Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Aedes Aegypti Mosquito (and Others Aedes Mosquito Species): Africa, South America
      • Haemagogus Mosquito: South America
  • Zika Virus (see Zika Virus, [[Zika Virus]])
    • Vectors
      • Aedes Aegypti Mosquito
      • Aedes Albopictus Mosquito (Asian Tiger Mosquito)

Other

  • Chandipura Virus (zee Chandipura Virus, [[Chandipura Virus]])
    • Vector
      • Aedes Aegypti Mosquito
  • Malaria (see Malaria, [[Malaria]])
    • Vector
      • Anopheles Mosquito
  • Tularemia (see Tularemia, [[Tularemia]])
    • Vector
      • xxxx

References

  • Mosquito allergy: immune mechanisms and recombinant salivary allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;133(2):198 [MEDLINE]
  • Advances in mosquito allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;7(4):350 [MEDLINE]