Mad Honey

Epidemiology

  • Grayanotoxins are named after Leucothoe grayana, a plant species from Japan, which was named after 19th century American botanist Asa Gray

Etiology

  • xxx

Physiology

  • Grayantoxin-Contaminated Honey Made From Rhododendron Ponticum and Other Plant Species from the Ericaceae and Sapindaceae Families

Diagnosis

  • xxx

Clinical Manifestations

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Arrhythmias

  • May Occur in Severe Cases

Atrioventricular Heart Blocks

Sinus Bradycardia (see Sinus Bradycardia, [[Sinus Bradycardia]])

  • May Occur in Severe Cases

Other Manifestations

  • xxx
  • xxx
  • xxx

Treatment

  • xxx

References

  • Atrioventricular Block Induced by Mad-Honey Intoxication. Tex Heart Inst J. 2009; 36(4): 342–344 [MEDLINE]
  • Mad Honey Intoxication: A Systematic Review on the 1199 cases. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Nov 4. pii: S0278-6915(15)30087-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.10.018 [MEDLINE]