Coral Snake Bite

Epidemiology

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Coral Snake Characteristics

Appearance

  • Red Bands Next to Yellow Bands (“Red Next to Yellow Kills a Fellow”): in US and northern Mexico
    • However, the color banding patterns may be reversed in species in southern Mexico (south of Mexico City), Central America, and South America

Mechanism of Coral Snake Venom Toxicity

  • Venom Inhibits Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Neuromuscular Junction

Physiology

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Clinical Manifestations

Symptoms at Bite Site

  • Mild Pain/Edema: significant local tissue damage and coagulopathy are not typically observed
    • However, bite from the South American Micrurus Lemniscatus Halleri coral snake species may produce severe local pan, myolysis, and coagulopathy
  • Parasthesias (see Parasthesias, [[Parasthesias]])

Gastrointestinal Manifestations

  • Abdominal Pain (see Abdominal Pain, [[Abdominal Pain]]): may be seen early in the course
  • Nausea/Vomiting (see Nausea and Vomiting, [[Nausea and Vomiting]]): may be seen early in the course

Neurologic Manifestations

  • General Comments
    • Onset of Neurotoxicity: may be delayed for up to 12 hrs after the bite
  • Descending Flaccid Paralysis with Bulbar Manifestations (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Drowsiness (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Dizziness (see Dizziness, [[Dizziness]]): may be seen early in the course
  • Euphoria
  • Generalized Muscle Weakness (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Seizures (see Seizures, [[Seizures]]): rare

Pulmonary Manifestations

Other Manifestations

  • Hypersalivation
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Treatment

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References

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