Air Pollution

Constituents of Air Pollution

  • Arsenic (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Chromium (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Nickel (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Sulfur Dioxide (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Nitrogen Dioxide (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Fine Particulate Matter

Adverse Effects

  • Impairment of Lung Function Growth in Children: increases risk for chronic lung disease
    • The effect is observed in boys and girls, in patients who have asthma and those who do not, and it is evident even when adjusted for personal smoking and passive smoke exposure in childhood and in utero
    • xxx

Effects of Decreased Air Pollution

  • Children’s Health Study of Effects of Air Pollution Over 3 Separate Time Periods: 1994-1998, 1997-2001, and 2007-2011 (NEJM, 2015) [MEDLINE]
    • Decreased Nitrogen Dioxide and Decreased Particulate Matter Particulate with Aerodynamic Diameter <2.5 μm Was Associated with 4-Year Growth in FEV1 and FVC
      • This Relationship Was Not Demonstrated for Ozone
      • These Associations Persisted After Adjustment for Several Potential Confounders: such as personal and passive cigarette smoke exposure
      • Significant Improvements in Lung Function Development were Observed in Both Boys and Girls and in Children with/without Asthma
    • Improved Air Quality Was Associated with Decreased Proportions of Children with Clinically Low FEV1

References

  • Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. N Engl J Med 2015;372:905-913 [MEDLINE]