Acrolein

Etiology

  • Plastic/Rubber Textile/Resin Manufacturing: inhalational exposure
    • Used as a substrate in the production of acrylate polymers and acrylic acid
  • Herbicide
  • Slimicide
  • Smoke Inhalation (see Smoke Inhalation): inhalational exposure
    • Formed during combustion of organic materials, in cigarette smoke, and from combustion of overheated cooking oil
  • Metabolite of Cyclophosphamide (see Cyclophosphamide): IV exposure

Physiology

  • Highly Electrophilic Reactive Aldehyde
    • Low Dose: inhibition of cell proliferation (without causing cell death) and enhancement of apoptosis from secondary toxins
    • High Dose: cell death ensues
    • Mechanism of Inahaltional Injury: direct irritation of mucous membranes and skin

Clinical

Pulmonary Manifestations

Extraplumonary Manifestations

  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Ocular Irritation

References

  • Acute pulmonary toxicity of acrolein in rats-underlying mechanism. Toxicology Letters
    Volume 104, Issue 3, 22 February 1999, Pages 189–194
  • The effects of acrolein exposure on pulmonary antibacterial defenses. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
    Volume 67, Issue 1, January 1983, Pages 49–54
  • The Molecular Effects of Acrolein. Toxicol. Sci. (2000) 57 (1): 6-15
  • Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HCl produces pulmonary edema. Journal of Applied Physiology March 1988 vol. 64 no. 3 1121-1133