Milk Alkali Syndrome

Epidemiology

  • History: historically, milk alkali syndrome was initially described as a complication of milk and antacid therapy for peptic ulcer disease
  • Most Current Cases: most current cases are associated with the ingestion of calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D)

Etiology

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Physiology

  • Mechanisms
    • Hypercalcemia Enhances Renal Hydrogen Ion Secretion
    • Hypovolemia Results in Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate, Impairing Renal Bicarbonate Excretion
    • Alkalosis Further Enhances Renal Calcium Reabsorption, Exacerbating the Hypercalcemia

Diagnosis

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Clinical Manifestations

Renal Manifestations

Metabolic Alkalosis (see Metabolic Alkalosis, [[Metabolic Alkalosis]])

  • Epidemiology
  • Clinical

Non-Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis (NAGMA) (see Metabolic Acidosis-Normal Anion Gap, [[Metabolic Acidosis-Normal Anion Gap]])

Other Manifestations

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Treatment

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References

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