Hypokalemia

Etiology

Pseudohypokalemia

  • Lab Error

Intracellular Shift of Potasssium

Renal Potassium Loss

  • Corticosteroids (see Corticosteroids, [[Corticosteroids]])
  • Hyperaldosteronism (see Hyperaldosteronism, [[Hyperaldosteronism]])
    • Abiraterone (Zytiga) (see Abiraterone, [[Abiraterone]]): due to mineralocorticoid excess
  • Diuretics

Extra-Renal Potassium Loss

Other

  • Afatinib (Gilotrif) (see Afatinib, [[Afatinib]])
  • Barium Intoxication (see Barium, [[Barium]]): in the setting of ingestion, inhalation, or burns
  • Ceftaroline (Teflaro, Zinfloro) (see Ceftaroline, [[Ceftaroline]])
  • Sorafenib (Nexavar) (see Sorafenib, [[Sorafenib]])

Clinical Manifestations

Cardiovascular Manifestations

Atrioventricular Heart Blocks

Neurologic Manifestations

  • Weakness (see xxxx, [[xxxx]])
  • Tetany
  • Fatigue (see Fatigue, [[Fatigue]])
  • Parasthesias (see Parasthesias, [[Parasthesias]])
  • Hyporeflexia (see Hyporeflexia, [[Hyporeflexia]])
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Restless Legs
  • Paralysis
  • Rhabdomyolysis (see Rhabdomyolysis, [[Rhabdomyolysis]])

Metabolic Manifestations

Gastroenterologic Manifestations

  • Ileus (see Ileus, [[Ileus]])

Renal Manifestations

  • Metabolic Alkalosis (see Metabolic Alkalosis, [[Metabolic Alkalosis]])
  • Polyuria (see Polyuria, [[Polyuria]])
  • Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Treatment

In Presence of Alkalosis/Normal Acid-Base Status

  • Potassium Chloride (KCL) (see Potassium Chloride, [[Potassium Chloride]]): max rate of 10 mEq/hr IV through CVC (on monitor)

In Presence of Metabolic Acidosis


References

  • xxx