Granulicatella

Epidemiology

  • Formerly classified as nutritionally variant streptococci (see also Abiotrophia Abiotrophia, [[Abiotrophia]])
  • Granulicatella and Abiotrophia species are normal flora in the mouth, urogenital tract, and intestine

Members of Granulicatella Genus

  • Granulicatella adiacens: formerly Abiotrophia adiacens
  • Granulicatella balaenopterae: formerly Abiotrophia balaenopterae
  • Granulicatella elegans: formerly Abiotrophia elegans

Microbiology

  • May be difficult to identify

Clinical

  • Endocarditis (see Endocarditis, [[Endocarditis]]): reported with Granulicatella adiacens and Granulicatella elegans
    • Approximately 5% of infective endocarditis cases are caused by nutritionally variant streptococci strains

Treatment/Prognosis

  • Clinical course with nutritionally variant streptococci strains is often more severe than that in cases caused by enterococci or viridans streptococci [MEDLINE]
  • Infections are difficult to treat: relapse rate of 41%, despite appropriate antibiotics [MEDLINE]

References

  • Endocarditis due to nutritionally deficient streptococci: therapeutic dilemma. Rev Infect Dis. 1987;9:908–916 [MEDLINE]
  • Granulicatella and Abiotrophia Species from Human Clinical Specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 [MEDLINE]