Asplenia

Etiology

Congenital

  • Heterotaxy Syndrome
  • Isolated Congenital Asplenia

Acquired

Surgical Splenectomy (see Splenectomy, [[Splenectomy]])

  • Typical Indications for Surgical Splenectomy

Functional Asplenia

  • Sickle Cell Disease (see Sickle Cell Disease, [[Sickle Cell Disease]]): auto-splenectomy occurs commonly during childhood (due to recurrent splenic infarcts)

Clinical Manifestations of Hyposplenism/Asplenia

Hematologic Manifestations

  • Decreased Uptake of Radioactive Colloid/Red Blood Cells/Leukocytes/Platelets by the Spleen: in cases with splenic hypofunction, but an intact spleen
  • Heinz Bodies within Circulating Red Blood Cells (see Peripheral Blood Smear, [[Peripheral Blood Smear]]): seen by supravital dye stain
  • Howell-Jolly Bodies within Circulating Red Blood Cells (see Peripheral Blood Smear, [[Peripheral Blood Smear]])
    • Howell-Jolly Bodies Can Be Quantitated to Provide an Estimate of the Degree of Splenic Hypofunction
  • Misshapen Red Blood Cells (see Peripheral Blood Smear, [[Peripheral Blood Smear]])
  • Red Blood Cells with “Pits”: seen by interference microscopy
    • Quantification of Pitted Red Blood Cells Can Provide an Estimate of the Amount of Splenic Tissue Remaining Following Splenectomy
  • Red Blood Cells with Decreased Deformability
  • Target Cells (see Peripheral Blood Smear, [[Peripheral Blood Smear]])
  • Mild Leukocytosis (see Leukocytosis, [[Leukocytosis]])
  • Mild Thrombocytosis (see Thrombocytosis, [[Thrombocytosis]])

Infectious Manifestations

Pulmonary Manifestations


References

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