Laryngospasm

Definition

  • Laryngospasm: brief, acute onset episode of sustained vocal fold adduction
    • In Contrast to Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion, Where Episodes May Last Hours-Days (see Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion, [[Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion]])

Etiology

  • Aspiration Event (see Aspiration Pneumonia, [[Aspiration Pneumonia]])
  • Chlorine Gas/Aerosol Inhalation (see Chlorine, [[Chlorine]])
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (see Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, [[Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease]])
  • General Anesthesia (see General Anesthesia, [[General Anesthesia]]): laryngospasm typically occurs on emergence from general anesthesia
  • Hypocalcemia (see Hypocalcemia, [[Hypocalcemia]])
  • Organophosphates (see Organophosphates, [[Organophosphates]])
    • Physiology: nicotinic effects cause laryngospasm
  • Post-Extubation

Clinical Manifestations

  • Acute Upper Airway Obstruction (see Obstructive Lung Disease, [[Obstructive Lung Disease]])
  • Acute Respiratory Failure (see Acute Hypoventilation, [[Acute Hypoventilation]]): due to high-grade upper airway obstruction with excessive work of breathing

Treatment

  • xxx

References

  • An approach to the management of paroxysmal laryngospasm. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology (August 2009), 123 (8), pg. 937-938