Carcinoid Syndrome

Etiology

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Physiology

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Clinical

  • Flushing (85-90% of cases)
    • Involving Foregut: long-lasting, purple
      • Mediators: killirein, 5-hydroxytryptophan, histamine, substance P
    • Involving Midgut: short-lasting, pink
      • Mediators: prostaglandins
  • Secretory Diarrhea (70% of cases)
    • Mediators: gastrin, 5-hydroxytryptophan, histamine, prostaglandins, VIP
  • Abdominal Pain (35% of cases)
    • Usually progressive
    • Small bowel obstruction
    • Hepatomegaly
    • Intestinal ischemia
  • Facial Telangiectasias (25% of cases)
    • Mediators: unknown
  • Bronchospasm (15% of cases)
    • Wheezing
    • Mediators: histamine, 5-hydroxytryptophan
  • Pellegra (5% of cases) (see [[Niacin Deficiency]]): due to niacin deficiency
    • Dermatitis
    • Diarrhea
    • Dementia

Treatment

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References

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