Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)

Epidemiology

  • PFO has been reported in 20-34% of autopsies with a decreasing incidence in the 9th and 10th decades

Diagnosis

  • Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram (TEE): identifies PFO in 12-20% of patients
    • Yields increased by using the Valsalva maneuver, increased PIP, and PEEP

Clinical

  • PEEP May Exacerbate R->L Shunting Through PFO [MEDLINE]

Treatment

  • xxx

References

  • Positive end-expiratory pressure increases the right to-left shunt in mechanically ventilated patients with patent foramen ovale. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119:887-894 [MEDLINE]