Cardiology Exam

Systolic Murmurs:

1) Mitral Regurgitation (MR)
-Etiology: endocarditis, acute MI ()
-Quality: pansystolic
2) Aortic Stenosis (AS)
-Etiology:
-Quality: midsystolic, radiating to neck
3) Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
-Etiology: acute MI
-Quality:
4) Tricuspid Regurgitation (TR)
-Etiology: endocarditis
-Quality:


Diastolic Murmurs:

1) Aortic Insufficiency (AI):
-Etiology:
-Quality:
2)
-Quality:


JVP:

-Add 5 cm to measurement from angle of Louis


Maneuvers:

  • Maneuvers that Decrease Preload (decrease LV chamber size): these increase HOCM murmur
    1) Valsalva Maneuver
    2) Nitrates
    3) Diuretics
    4) Standing

  • Maneuvers that Decrease Afterload: these increase HOCM murmur
    1) Vasodilators

  • Maneuvers that Increase Preload: these decrease HOCM murmur
    1) Mueller Maneuver
    2) Squatting

  • Maneuvers that Increase Afterload (increase LV chamber size): these decrease HOCM murmur
    1) Isometric Handgrip


References

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